Background: Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, which is the cause of 60,000 maternal deaths annually worldwide. It affects 4 % to 7 % of pregnant women worldwide.
Objectives: Estimate the magnitude and predictors of preeclampsia, particularly UTI among pregnant women attending obstetric clinic in KFSH and RC during 2013.
Methods: It is a nested case control study with a case control ratio of 1:2. The study sample was taken from pregnant women who attended either the Family Medicine or Obstetric Antenatal Clinic at KFSH and RC during 2013. All pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia were included as cases (n=32) while controls with no preeclampsia (n= 60) were randomly selected from the same pregnant population. Data was collected through a checklist using a data collection form (included demographic information, obstetric data and preeclampsia potential risk factors).
Results: Out of 1104 pregnant women attended Family Medicine or Obstetric Antenatal Clinics at KFSH and RC during 2013, 32 fulfilled the criteria of preeclampsia giving a prevalence rate of 2.9%. Results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women aged over 40 years were at almost four-fold risk for preeclampsia as compared to those aged 40 or less (adjusted OR=4.23; 95%CI=1.39-11.09, p=0.003). Overweight pregnant women were at almost three-fold risk for preeclampsia as opposed to normal weight women (adjusted OR=3.01; 95%CI=1.24-9.02, p=0.013). Pregnant women with parity of one to two 10 were at significant lower risk for preeclampsia compared to nulliparous women (adjusted OR=0.22; 95%CI=0.06-0.59, p=0.012). Pregnant women with UTI during pregnancy were at almost three-fold risk for preeclampsia as opposed to those without history of UTI during pregnancy (adjusted OR=2.97; 95%CI=1.01-7.09, p=0.049). Rate of cesarean section was significantly higher while gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower among group of pregnant women with preeclampsia.
Conclusions: The prevalence of preeclampsia in this study was 2.9%. Older age being obese and nulliparous and having a UTI were significant risk factors for preeclampsia. There was a significant association between having preeclampsia and higher rate of caesarean section, shorter gestational age and lower birth weight.